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Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2003, Vol 3, Num, 1     (Pages: 51-79)

Fish Population Genetics and Molecular Markers: II- Molecular Markers and Their Applications in Fisheries and Aquaculture

İbrahim Okumuş 1 ,Yılmaz Çiftci 2

1 Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Department of Fisheries, 61530 Çamburnu, Trabzon, Turkey
2 Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 129, 61001, Trabzon, Turkey
Viewed : 4816 - Downloaded : 14277 Genetic diversity or variation and its measurement have vital importance in interpretation, understanding and management of populations and individuals. Development of allozyme electrophoresis and chromosomal techniques has significantly increased ability to observe the genetic variation and the former has for many years been the standard tool in genetic studies of wild and cultured fish stocks, but in recent years, it has been increasingly replaced by DNA markers. These molecular markers combined with new statistical developments enable the determination of differences and similarities between stocks and individuals, and the population of origin of single fish, resulting in numerous new research possibilities and applications in practical fisheries and aquaculture stock management. Various molecular markers, proteins or DNA (mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA such as minisatellites, microsatellites, transcribed sequences, anonymous cDNA or RAPDs) are now being used in fisheries and aquaculture. Unfortunately, the terminology used is sometimes confusing. The techniques are leading misunderstandings particularly between the senior scientists and, field researchers or end users of their research. More importantly the choice of these markers for particular applications is not straightforward one and is often based on the prior experience of the investigators. It has therefore become crucial that fisheries and aquaculture researchers and managers have a basic understanding of molecular tools, and their assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. In this review, we have provided basics of molecular genetics (DNA) and overview of commonly used molecular markers, and presented a critical review of the applications and limitations of major classes of these markers in fisheries and aquaculture related studies. Keywords : Allozyme, aquaculture, fisheries, genetics, microsatellite, minisatellite, mitochondrial DNA, molecular markers, nuclear DNA